US Biosphere Regions Information Portal
This portal has links to a wide variety of documents related to US Biosphere Regions (before 2021, known as US Biosphere Reserves; see explanation here). Many of the links take you to other websites, while some other documents are hosted here on the GWS site. A few items have no links yet.
Readers are encouraged to add to the portal by submitting information about the history and development of US BRs to us at firstname.lastname@example.org. We are interested in:
Policy documents, plans, and summary chronologies,
Directorate reports (e.g. bibliographies, program reviews, directories)
Conferences and workshops
BR selection panel reports
Planning and budget
Media (video, popular articles etc.)
Nomination Reports and associated correspondence
Conference & workshop proceedings, papers presented
A major initiative to revitalize U.S. biosphere reserves shortly after UNESCO's adoption of the "Seville Strategy" and statutory framework for biosphere reserves, Includes case studies of existing and proposed BRs and reports of topical workshops (communication, education and training, filling gaps, local participation, operational framework, research and monitoring. Results of BR Managers survey were reported at this workshop.
Biosphere reserves and the conservation of traditional land use systems. Paper presented at 64th Annual Meeting of the Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division of AAAS, Wichita State U. Wichita, KS. 29 March-2 April 1988. Gregg, William P., Jr. 1988.
Later published in Oldfield, M., and J. Alcorn. 1991. Biodiversity, culture, conservation, and ecodevelopment. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Biosphere reserves: Expanding the functional area for conservation through cooperation. Outline, text and graphics for presentation delivered at 15th Natural Areas Association Conference, U. Indiana, Bloomington IN. October 1992. Gregg, William P., Jr. 1992.
Contains brief discussion of zonation, biogeocultural regions, biosphere reserve categories with examples, and descriptive graphics and charts for the U.S. network.
Proceedings of the Symposium on Biosphere Reserves, Fourth World Wilderness Congress Worldwide Conservation, Estes Park, Colorado. Gregg, William P., Jr., Stanley L. Krugman, and James D. Wood, Jr., eds. 1987.
26 papers on biosphere reserves: general concepts (8), coastal-marine BRs (4), experience in developed countries (7), experience in developing countries (7).
The report summarizes the insights, perspectives, and recommendations of U.S. participants in EuroMAB2013, the first EuroMAB conference in North America. The conference focused on accomplishments, contemporary challenges, and opportunities in implementing the biosphere reserve (BR) approach, considering recent experience in Europe, Canada, and the U.S. The conference theme. "Engaging Our Communities" reflects the increasing emphasis on enlisting communities of interest, particularly local people, as BR partners and beneficiaries. More than 190 BR practitioners from 27 countries participated. In their report, U.S. participants focus on the relevance of the Conference to the revitalization of U.S. participation in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, and the particular value-added of BRs in efforts to integrate conservation, science, and sustainable development at the landscape level. Submitter: William Gregg, U.S. Biosphere Reserves Associates & U.S. Geological Survey (ret.)
3rd World Congress of Biosphere Reserves, Madrid, Spain, February 4–9, 2008: Draft Report to the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO. The 3rd World Congress of Biosphere Reserves was held 4-9 February, 2008 in Madrid, Spain. There were 105 countries represented, and 829 participants, who helped to elaborate a Madrid Action Plan (MAP) to guide biosphere reserve research, education and management initiatives during the period 2008–2013. This report of congress outcomes was compiled by the 20 U.S. participants. It is supplemented by a Statement by Vernon (Tom) Gilbert on behalf of the U.S. Association of Biosphere Reserves.
Wilderness and biosphere reserves: complementary systems of landscape conservation. Paper presented at a symposium on "Interpreting Wilderness Values", Sigurd Olson Environmental Institute, Ashland, Wisconsin 9p. Gregg, William P., Jr. 1985.
General guidance for and analysis of BRs
A practical guide to MAB. 40p. UNESCO MAB Secretariat. 1987.
An introduction to the objectives, organization,and activities of MAB, prepared by UNESCO MAB Secretariat. A section on BRs includes role of BRs in MAB, recommendations of UNESCO's BR Action Plan (approved 1985), spatial distribution of BR functions, selection guidelines and designation procedures.
Biosphere Reserves of The World: Principles & Practices. Philip J. Nyhus and Michael S. Adams. 1995. 1985. (2e)
Introduction; history; consrvation; culture and development in biosphere reserves; roles, and future directions. Unpublished, used as class text in two courses at UW-Madison (per P.Nyhus on-line cv).
Biosphere reserves: their history and their promise. Orion Nature Quarterly 4(3):41-51. Gregg, William P., Jr., and Betsy Ann McGean. 1985.
Biosphere reserves as embodiment of "a new symbolism [as] informational reservoirs for human welfare" Paper includes description and graphical representation of the ideal biosphere reserve (without reference to "buffer zones"), focusing on integration of BR functions, sources of knowledge (including traditional knowledge), and cooperation.
Guidance for regional MAB organizational efforts 9/6/90, and related excerpt from U.S. MAB Bulletin, October 1990. U.S.Man and the Biosphere Program. 1990.
Approved guidance for efforts to "create regional organizations based upon protected areas which have received biosphere reserve status.
Guidelines for identification, evaluation and selection of biosphere reserves in the United States. U.S. MAB Report No. 1 (First Revision), 1983. 38p. U.S.Man and the Biosphere Program. 1983.
Approved BR guidelines, superseding interim USMAB guidelines in USMAB Report No.1(1979). Including BR characteristics, selection criteria and process, types of biosphere reserves, management and use considerations. The guidelines (along with , to supplement UNESCO guidance in MAB Report Series No. 22 (UNESCO 1974)
Guidelines for the selection and coordination of biosphere reserves in the United States. Draft, March 1989. 29p plus appendix. U.S.Man and the Biosphere Program. 1989.
Draft report by the USMAB Coordinating Committee on Biosphere Reserves, to provide integrated guidelines reflecting current  USMAB organization, including regional MAB programs, BR roles and spatial organization (including revised terminology), BR selection and designation (biogeographical review, feasibility assessment, administrative and public review, nomination and designation procedure, responsibilities of BR administrators) and delisting procedure.
Guidelines for the selection of biosphere reserves: an interim report and key. USMAB Publication No. 1. 31p. U.S.Program on Man and the Biosphere. 1979.
Report of Working Group on Project 8 [Biosphere Reserves], prepared for USMAB by Paul Risser, Kathy Cornelison, and Christine Schonewald, to review UNESCO criteria for BRs; provide information requirements and selection procedures for BR nominations.
Interim guidelines for identification and selection of coastal biosphere reserves. US MAB Report No. 6. 33p. U.S.Man and the Biosphere Program. 1981.
Report of Expert Panel on Coastal Biosphere Reserves (G.Carleton Ray, chairman) to USMAB Directorate on Biosphere Reserves. Includes definition and classification of the coastal zone and guidelines for BR identification and selection, including ratings for comparative evaluation of candidate BR sites in coastal regions.
Research in BRs
A survey of ecological inventory, monitoring, and research in US National Park Service biosphere reserves. Ecological Conservation 26(1983):33-35. Mack, Alison, W.P. Gregg, Jr., Susan P. Bratton, and Peter S. White. 1983.
Telephone survey of the 14 BR units managed by the National Park Service to assess completeness of baseline inventory, long-term monitoring, and long-term ecological research. Includes tables of index ratings by park and science activity, and comparison of number of threats in BRs and other NPS units.
The directory includes information on the objectives of permanent plots, data availability, type and spatial distruibution, date first established by type and number of plots in BRs of Europe & North America.
Big Bend National Park Biosphere Reserve: Volume I: A History of Scientific Study. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program, U.S. MAB Report No. 10. Bissonette, John A. and John W. Ault III. 1985.
Vol. 1 — A Narrative Description containing synopses for aquatic systems, archaeology, climate, geology/paleontology, history, soil, terrestrial fauna, use and effects, vegetation.
Big Bend National Park Biosphere Reserve. Volume II: A History of Scientific Study, Bibliography. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program, U.S. MAB Report No. 10. Bissonette, John A. and John W. Ault III. March 1985.
Big Bend National Park Biosphere Reserve. Volume II-A: A History of Scientific Study, Bibliography — Spanish Citations. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program, U.S. MAB Report No. 10. Bissonette, John A. and John W. Ault III. March 1985.
Building resource inventories on a global scale. The George Wright Forum 10(1):21-29. Gregg, William P., Jr., Erica Serabian, and Michael A Ruggiero. 1993.
The article focuses on the early development of the EuroMAB Biosphere Reserve Integrated Monitoring Program to "facilitate and support an integrated, long-term ecological monitoring program in biosphere reserves" (initially among the 176 biosphere reserves in Canada, the U.S., and 50 European countries).
Building science programs to support the multiple roles of biosphere reserves. Paper presented at First International Congress on Biosphere Reserves, Minsk, Byelorussian SSR, 26 Sept - 2 October 1983. Gregg, William P., Jr. 1983.
Emphasis is on BRs as global benchmarks of environmental quality; addressing problems in particular biogeographical areas, and in fostering interdisciplinary, international, and multi-sector cooperation Basic requirements for developing BR science programs are recommended.
Classification of coastal and marine environments for identification of biosphere reserves. Final report to IUCN and UNESCO, December 1986. 35p. Ray, G. Carleton and Bruce P. Hayden. 1986.
Proposal to develop a method to classify coastal and marine environments of the world for purposes of identifying potential biosphere reserves, prepared in response to UNESCO's 1984 Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves.
Developing landscape-scale information to meet ecological, economic, and social needs. Pp.13-17 in V.A. Sample, ed. Remote Sensing and GIS in Ecosystem Management. Island Press. Gregg, William P., Jr. 1994.
Presentation focuses on ecosystem management as a process of balancing human needs -- material & energy, social, spiritual, and informational - and the emerging roles of remote sensing and GIS in this process. Although not explicitly focused on biosphere reserves, the article was inspired by the BR model.
Establishing biosphere reserves for coastal barrier ecosystems. BioScience 41(5):301-309. G.Carleton Ray and William P.Gregg, Jr. 1991.
One of several papers on biosphere reserves in a special issue of BioScience, in collaboration with U.S. MAB Program, on coastal barriers. Includes articles on long-term research (B.P. Hayden et al.), network design (M.I.Dyer & M.M. Holland), & management (J.R. Clark).
Glacier National Park Biosphere Reserve: A History of Scientific Studies. U.S. MAB Report No. 9, 2 vols. Vol. I. 137p. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program. 1984.
Glacier National Park Biosphere Reserve: A History of Scientific Studies. U.S. MAB Report No. 9 , 2 vols. Vol. II 198p plus appendices. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program. 1984.
Great Smoky Mountains Biosphere Reserve: A Bibliography of Scientific Studies. U.S. MAB Report No. 4, 51p. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program. 1982.
Great Smoky Mountains Biosphere Reserve: A History of Scientific Studies. U.S. MAB Report No. 4, 51p. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program. 1982.
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve: A History of Scientific Studies. U.S. MAB Report No. 11, 2 vols. Vol. I, 115p. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program. 1985.
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve: A History of Scientific Studies. U.S. MAB Report No. 11, 2 vols. Vol. II, 53p. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program. 1985.
Long-term ecological monitoring in biosphere reserves. 31 pp. plus appendixes. U.S. Program on Man and the Biosphere. 1979.
Report of international workshop (20-28 October 1978, Washington,DC) to develop a plan for long-term ecological monitoring in biosphere reserves. The plan includes objectives, recommendations, and desired products for chemical, biological, geophysical, and anthropological for three levels of effort.
Long-term ecological research sites: value and experience in the Man and the Biosphere Program. Paper presented at Eighth Life Sciences Symposium: an International Conference on Bioindicators. Knoxville, TN 21-23 March 1988. Gregg, William P., Jr. 1988.
Presentation in session on biological indicators of environmental health. Unpublished.
Paper presented at the "Conference on Forests and Global Change", convened by American Forestry Association, Arlington, VA, 11-12 June 1991. The focus is on natural areas as benchmarks for assessing the condition of natural ecosystems and the effectiveness of adaptive management of ecosystems and biodiversity under changing climate. Biogeographic areas are recommended for organizing integrated cooperative programs to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to facilitate adaptive management, with emphasis on the role of national parks and biosphere reserves. Submitter: William Gregg, U.S. Biosphere Reserves Associates & U.S. Geological Survey (ret.)
The role of U.S. National Parks in global change research. Published in The George Wright Forum 9(3/4): 67–74.
This paper (by Peter Comanor and William Gregg) was originally presented at the IVth World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela, 10–21 February 1992. The paper focuses on the National Park Service's proposal to develop a long-term cooperative global change research program in 20 biogeographical areas, using designated and potential biosphere reserves as principal research sites. The program was initiated in 1991 in six temperate forest biogeographical areas: the Olympic Peninsula, Central and Southern Sierras, Colorado Rockies, Ozark Highlands, Glacier National Park Area, the Ozark Highlands, and the Western Great Lakes. Submitter: William Gregg, U.S. Biosphere Reserves Associates & U.S. Geological Survey (ret.)
The unique role of biosphere reserves in conserving biological diversity. Testimony before the House Subcommittee on Science and Technology, 28 May 1987. Gregg, William P., Jr. 1987.
Emphasis is on BRs as global benchmarks of environmental quality; addressing problems in particular biogeographical areas, and in fostering interdisciplinary,transborder, international and multi-sector cooperation, with emphasis on voluntary associations among complementary existing protected areas.
BR plans & planning; surveys of managers
Action plan for biosphere reserves. Nature and Resources 20(4), October-December 1984. 12p. UNESCO International Coordinating Council for MAB. 1984.
A programme framework, reflecting the results if the First International Congress on Biosphere Reserves (Minsk, 1983), identifying 35 actions for consideration by governments and international organizations in developing the functions of BRs.
Draft guideline for addition of sites to existing biosphere reserves, including notes re BR zonation.
Biosphere Reserve managers' survey 1995. U.S.Biosphere Reserve Directorate. 1995.
Survey to assess managers' perceptions about their biosphere reserves. Survey results presented by William Gregg at U.S. Biosphere Reserve Managers'Workshop, 29-31 October 1995. 62% of US BRs responded.
Constable Commission Final Report. Submitted to the United States Man and Biosphere Program, March 1995. 15p. Constable, Elinor G., et al. 1995.
Strategic review of the U.S. MAB Program, including conclusions and recommendations regarding, inter alia, mission, support, societal needs, research, biosphere reserves, information links and dissemination, U.S. MAB Associates, reform agenda.
Correspondence relating to UNESCO MAB document entitled "Future Development of the MAB Programme". SC-00/CONF 208/6-draft Paris, 20 July 2000.
U.S. MAB's consultations prior to 16th Session of UNESCO's International Coordinating Council. 6-10 November 2000 (Seville + 5 Conference), including an undated statement (final?) by the U.S. National Committee, a call for nominations to a UNESCO Roster of Experts on the Biosphere Reserve Concept and Urban Issues.
Designation of U.S. MAB Areas and recognition of entities contributing to the U.S. Biosphere Reserve Program. Report to the U.S. National MAB Committee, Feb. 1996. 6p. U.S.Biosphere Reserve Directorate. 1996.
Directorate report, requested by MAB National Committee, to expand participation of outside groups in achieving BR Program goals. The report proposes criteria for USMAB designation of U.S. MAB Areas, and recognition of " groups, organizations, programs and partnerships that are contributing to the goals of MAB" and desire to be associated with the US BR Program as USMAB Cooperative Planning Ventures and USMAB Affiliates.
Development of the Biosphere Reserve Network under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program. Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana; August 16-21, 1981. 22p. Gilbert, Vernon C., and William P. Gregg, Jr. 1981.
Methodology for discussion to aid BR managers in assessing BR functions for local initiatives and funding through the Directorate's "20 in 2000" campaign. Not implemented.
International Co-ordinating Council of the Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB), First session. Final Report. 65p. UNESCO. Programme on Man and the Biosphere. 1971.
Public comments on many issues and perceptions for use in assessing the feasibility of establishing a biosphere reserve in the Ozark Highlands.
Candid responses of biosphere reserve managers on BR program goals, activities, benefits, and ways to enhance BR-related activities. Early input to U.S. Biosphere Reserve strategic plan.
Members of the U.S. National Committee for the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program and Program Directorates. Unpublished briefing book. 1997.
Directory for the US MAB Program.
Minutes of second meeting, 10-12 October 1990, Virginia Coast Reserve and Biosphere Reserve, Hog Island, VA. 5p plus 5 attachments. Draft. U.S. MAB Coordinating Committee on Biosphere Reserves. 1990.
Report of key meeting to initiate the planning process for an action plan for U.S. Biosphere Reserves. Attachments: problem statement for USBR Program, program goals, potential implementing actions, priority actions, potential constituencies for the Action Plan.
Briefing book containing annotated agenda, draft minutes of meeting of 21 January 1998, FY1998 revenues and expected expenditures,report on the Biosphere Reservge Integrated Monitoring Program [BRIM], appropriations bills.
Proposed guidelines for the selection of biosphere reserves in the United States. January, 1996. 11p. U.S. Biosphere Reserve Directorate. 1996.
Report to the US MAB Committee summarizing recommendations of an ad hoc committee convened in January 1995 by the new BR Directorate to recommend draft guidelines for BR selection, feasibility assessment and review.
Proposed UNESCO survey on the implementation of the Seville Strategy. MAB Circular Letter No.1/2000, 10 July 2000.
The survey form includes information from individual biosphere reserves (47 questions) and National MAB Committees (11 questions). The UNSECO request is dated 10 July with response requested before 30 August 2000.
Remarks of William Gregg to Biosphere Reserve Managers' Workshop, Estes Park, Colorado. 6-10 December 1993. Gregg, William P., Jr. 1993.
Text (with notations) for remarks to managers' workshop to help support development of The Strategic Plan for the U.S. Biosphere Reserve Program, published in 1994.
Request of 25 May 1991 to BR administrators and BR program participants for input, including relevant policies, to facilitate to preparation of an Action Plan for U.S. Biosphere Reserves. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program. 1991.
USMAB letter to agencies re BR policies, guidelines, and program relationships for consideration in preparing Action Plan for U.S. Biosphere Reserves. Includes copies of responses received. (May not be complete)
Statement on Biosphere Reserves for the Ad Hoc Commission on the United States Man and the Biosphere Program. January 6, 1995. 8p plus attachments. Gregg, William P., Jr., and Hubert H. Hinote. 1995.
Status of regional biosphere reserve programs. January 1991. U.S. MAB Coordinating Committee on Biosphere Reserves. 1991.
Table showing status of regional BR Programs for 28 biogeographic areas in 5 categories: established MAB Cooperatives, informal program coordination structures, feasibility studies, program planning in progress, and discussion stage.
Strategic plan for the U.S. biosphere reserve program. 28p. U.S. Biosphere Reserve Directorate. 1994.
The strategic plan, developed in response to UNESCO's call for country MAB programs to adopt BR action plans. highlights the roles, functions, and values of BRs; sets forth the mission, goals, and objectives of the US BR program; and recommends actions to implement each objective. The plan defines 5 BR categories and lists BRs in each category (protected natural area, research reserve, biosphere reserve cluster, multisite biosphere reserve, regional biosphere reserve).
Survey of National Park Biosphere Reserves. Mack, Alison. August 1980.
Largely qualitative survey based on interviews of research and management staff; reports preliminary information on inventory, monitoring, and research for aquatics, macroclimate, disturbances, vegetation, fauna, and geology.
Task Force on: Criteria and guidelines for the choice and establishment of biosphere reserves. Final Report. MAB Report Series No. 22, 61p. UNESCO. Programme on Man and the Biosphere. 1974.
Initial UNESCO guidance for selecting biosphere reserves and biosphere reserve program (MAB Project 8) 61p.
The "20 in 2000 Campaign": a proposal for the functional development of U.S. Biosphere Reserves. February 1996. 10p. Plus follow-up correspondence to enlist NPS support. U.S. Biosphere Reserve Directorate. 1996. (3b)
BR Directorate proposal for "a national campaign to support regional and local partnerships that have the capability and interest in implementing and integrating the functions of a biosphere reserve -- conservation, sustainable development, and networking" with the objective of catalyzing the efforts of 20 partnerships in achieving measurable outcomes by the year 2000. Indicators for functioning BRs are listed. A tabular summary of the status of cooperative efforts to implement BR concepts is included, based in part on a 1995 survey of BR managers.
The Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve. Adirondack Journal of Environmental Studies 1(1):12-18. Gregg, William P., Jr. 1994.
A review of considerations in the U.S. nomination and UNESCO designation of the Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve in 1988. efforts to facilitate biosphere reserve goals (through 1993), and some future opportunities.
The Status of Biosphere Reserves: A Preliminary Assessment. Gregg, William and John Wargo. 1988. (1d)
Includes data for 219 biosphere reserves (ex 269 designated as of August 1988). The material includes a preliminary summary (March 1987) for UNESCO of selected survey results for 122 biosphere reserves and related correspondence, including comparison of BRs in the U.S. and other regions; as well as an initial analysis of U.S. Responses (Bruce Leighty, Yale University School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, August 1986).
Toward a Crown of the Continent Biosphere Reserve. Talk given at Columbia Falls, MT. 6 August 1990. Gregg, William P., Jr. 1990.
Outline and text of a public presentation on MAB and biosphere reserve concepts, research priorities, management implications; benefits & support; including a chronology of milestones(1971-1990) for Biosphere Reserve Program generally and in the transborder Crown of the Continent region.
Toward a U.S. Modality of Biosphere Reserves: the Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve Experience. Paper delivered at the International Conference on Biosphere Reserves, Seville, Spain. 20-25 March 1995. Gregg, William P., Jr., and Hubert H. Hinote. 1995.
U.S. Biosphere Reserve Action Plan (Draft). Woodmanee, Robert, Laurie Wayburn, William Greg and Caroline Bledsow. October 1991.
Recommends Biosphere Program Goals for research and minitoring, conservation, environmental education, regional partnerships, expanded public and communication networks; 16 action items with suggested timeframes and budgets; includes list of milestones 1971 - 1992 and categorization of U.S. biosphere reserves; recommendations provided early input to U.S. strategic plan for biosphere reserves adopted in 1994.
U.S. biosphere reserve survey results: 2003 and 1995. U.S. Biosphere Reserves Association. 2004. (
Comparison of the results of USBR Association's 2003 survey of BR managers (97% response) with a similar survey by US MAB Biosphere Reserve Directorate in 1995. Results were generally similar. The 2003 survey reported interest in renewal of the USBR program (91% of respondents).
U.S. MAB Bulletins. 1978 through 1997. 21 vols. United States National Committee for Man and the Biosphere. 1978-1997.
U.S. MAB policy guidance: correct signs and advertisements for biosphere reserves. Draft. 1p. U.S. Biosphere Reserve Directorate?. No date.
A draft recommendation -- most likely from the BR Directorate in mid 1990s -- for consistency in public recognition of BRs on signs and other public advertisements. Notes from William Gregg.
U.S. MAB's BRIM Bulletins: Biodiversity Resources for Inventorying and Monitoring. United States MAB Program. 1998-2000.
Biosphere Reserves and Sovereignty: A Story for the United States Man and Biosphere (MAB) Community. 61p. Vernon (Tom) Gilbert. January 2016. Related version: Henry Lamb, Sovereignty International Inc., and Biosphere Reserves. Vernon (Tom) Gilbert, May 2022.
Introduction to Crop Wild Relatives. Karen Williams, USDA Agriculture Research Service, May 2022. A brief definition of CWRs with a short annotated list of further readings. Biosphere Regions are considered to be ideal vehicles for protecting CWRs and raising public awareness of their importance.
On environmental policy, sustainable societies, and biosphere reserves. Pp.23-40 in Peine, John D., ed. Ecosystem Management for Sustainability: Principles and practices illustrated by a regional biosphere reserve cooperative. Gregg, William P. 1999.
Review of history of UNESCO MAB/Biosphere Reserve Program, U.S. participation, chronology of U.S. biosphere reserve development (1974 - 1996), and perspectives on future directions.
Putting the biosphere reserve concept into practice: the United States experience. Pp.460-484 in diCastri, F., F.W.G. Bakert, and M. Hadley, eds. Ecology in Practice, Part I:Ecosystem Management. Tycooly Publishing & UNESCO. Gregg, William P. Jr. and Monica M. Goigel. 1984.
A review of the development and status of the U.S. biosphere program and activities in the 36 U.S. biosphere reserves, and perspectives on future directions. Originally presented at UNESCO conference in 1981.
Renewing the bond of mankind and nature: biosphere reserves as sacred space. Orion Nature Quarterly 4(3):52-63. Engel, J.Ronald. 1985.
Perspectives on the relationship of biosphere reserves as sacred spaces representing a "new stage in the ethical and religious history of mankind.
The international network of biosphere reserves: a new dimension in global conservation. Pp.65-81 in Veziroglu, T.N., ed. The Biosphere: Problems and Solutions. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam. Gregg, William P., Jr. 1984. (1d)
The Ozark Highlands Man and the Biosphere Reserve: A Study of a Failed Nomination Effort. Goedeke, Theresa L. and J. Sanford Rikoon. September 1998.
A case study and assessment of factors involved in public opposition to establishment of the Ozark Highlands BR. Includes 12-16-1998 transmittal letter from USMAB to BR managers and coordinators.